Досуг и отдых

LESSON 7

Причастия

Независимый причастный оборот

Значения слова since

Суффиксы -age, -ate

Префикс еп-

Text 7 A. Transport for Tomorrow Text 7В. Car of Future Text 1С. Talking Instrument Panels Text ID. Testing Times

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1.Прочитайте, обращая внимание на употребление времен.

«Have you seen a copy of Magna Charta: collection of old Eng­lish Laws?» «I haven’t seen all of it. I have seen parts of it many times. I saw three or four articles from it yesterday. I read them in the translated form. Old English is almost as difficult to read as a foreign language». «Where did you see them?» «I saw them at the Public Library». «I saw you there. Did you see me?» «No, I didn’t see you. I didn’t see anyone whom I knew except the librarian. I didn’t see any of my school friends, I mean». «I have seen you at the library many times, but you don’t see anyone. The teacher says she has seen you there too, but you see only the books which you are reading».

Упражнение 2.Заполните пропуски глаголом to see в соответствующем времени.

I … a friend in the library yesterday. I … him there many times before, but he was so busy that I did not speak to him. When I spoke to him he said that he … never … me at the library. He con­centrates on his work. He … only his book. The teacher … him

there many times, but he doesn’t … even her. He … many impor­tant facts in books, however, and tells the class about them. He … and read more important documents than all the rest of our class put together.

Упражнение 3.Переведите следующие словосочетания с Participle I и Participle II:

developing industry, developed industry;

changing distances, changed distances;

a controlling device, a controlled device;

an increasing speed, an increased speed;

a transmitting signal, a transmitted signal;

a reducing noise, a reduced noise;

a moving object, a moved object;

heating parts, heated parts.

Упражнение 4.Найдите причастия, переведите предложения.

A. 1. We need highly developed electronics and new materials
to make supercomputers. 2. New alloys have appeared during the
last decades, among them a magnesium-lithium alloy developed by
our scientists. 3. We are carried by airplanes, trains and cars with
built-in electronic devices. 4. Computer components produced
should be very clean. 5. Many countries have cable TV, a system
using wires for transmitting TV programs. 6. The fifth-generation
computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become
available in the near future. 7. A video phone has a device which al­
lows us to see a room and the face of the person speaking. 8. New
technologies reduce the number of workers needed.

B. 1. Driving a car a man tries to keep steady speed and watch
the car in front of him. 2. Having stated the laws of gravity, Newton
was able to explain the structure of the Universe. 3. Being more effi­
cient than human beings, computers are used more and more exten­
sively. 4. Having graduated from Cambridge, Newton worked there
as a tutor. 5. Having been published in 1687, Newton’s laws of mo­
tion are still the basis for research. 6. Being invented the digital tech­
nology solved the old problems of noise in signal transmission.
7. Having published his book about space exploration in 1895, Tsiol-
kovsky became known all over the world. 8. Built in the middle of
the last century, the British Museum is situated in central London.

Упражнение 5.Определите, какую функцию выполняет слово с оконча­нием -ed, и переведите предложения.

1. The first television set produced quite a sensation in 1939. The first television set produced in 1939 was a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box. 2. Newton’s great work published in 1687 is called

«Principia». Newton published his great work «Principia» in 1687. 3. The Russian Chemical Society organized more than a century ago is named after Mendeleev. The Russian Chemical Society or­ganized an international conference devoted to the latest achieve­ments in organic chemistry. 4. The energy possessed by the body due to its position is called the potential energy. The new material possessed good properties. 5. The equipment required to carry out laboratory experiments was very complex. The equipment re­quired further improvement. 6. The car model developed a speed of 50 miles an hour. The car model developed by our student design bureau will be shown on TV.

Упражнение 6.Переведите выделенные словосочетания.

1. When completedin 1897, Jefferson’s building was the largest and costliest library in the world. 2. Though beinga school teacher of mathematics all his life, Tsiolkovsky concentrated his attention on man’s travel into space. 3. If comparedto today’s TV program, the first black-and-white pictures were rather bad. 4. While beinga teacher of deaf people Bell became interested in sound and its transmission. 5. Though discovered,Newton’s mistake had no in­fluence on his theory. 6. While working ata new transmitter for deaf people Bell invented a telephone. 7. If heatedto 100 °C, water turns into steam.

загрузка…

Упражнение7. Найдите подлежащее независимого причастного оборота, переведите предложения.

A. 1. The room being dark, we couldn’t see anything. 2. The
book being translated into many languages, everybody will be able
to read it. 3. Peter having passed his exams, we decided to have a
rest in the country. 4. We went for a walk, our dog running in front
of us. 5. The testwork having been written, he gave it to the teacher
and left the room. 6. They having arrived at the station early, all of
us went to the cafe. 7. My friends decided to go to the park, the
weather being warm and sunny. 8. Our library buying all the new
books, we needn’t buy them ourselves. 9.The fuel burnt out, the en­
gine stopped. 10. Many scientists worked in the field of mechanics
before Newton, the most outstanding being Galileo.

B. 1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the or­
bital stations, it became possible to develop new methods of indus­
trial production of new materials. 2. President Jefferson having
offered his personal library, the foundation of the Library of Con­
gress was laid. 3. Anthony Panizzi designed the Reading Room of
the British Museum, the Reading Room being a perfect circle. 4. A
beam of light being transmitted forwards, it is possible to measure

the distance between the car and the other cars in front of it. 5. The distance having been measured, the computer adjusts the car’s speed. 6. Two metallurgists produced a new superplastic metal, the new steel showing properties identical to Damascus steel. 7. The young physicist having discovered Newton’s error, other scientists confirmed it. 8. The first TV sets having been shown in New York, the news about it spread throughout the world.

С 1. With the first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories. 2. The inventor was demon­strating his new device, with the workers watching its operation at­tentively. 3. With his numerous experiments being over, Newton was able to write his work very quickly. 4. With the current being switched on, the machine automatically starts operating.

Упражнение 8.Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Читая книгу, он обычно делает заметки (make notes). 2. Про­читав текст, мы обсудим его. 3. Отвечая на вопросы, он сделал несколько ошибок. 4. Ответив на вопросы преподавателя, мы начали переводить новый текст. 5. Являясь хорошим провод­ником электричества, медь широко используется в промыш­ленности. 6. Увидев зеленый свет, мы перешли (cross) улицу. 7. Покупая газету, он потерял деньги. 8. Купив газету, он пошел к метро.

Упражнение 9.Переведите предложения. Запомните значения выделен­ных слов.

1. The Reading Room of the Library of Congress housesa great collection of reference books. 2. The Housesof Parliament are situated in the centre of London on the banks of the Thames. 3. The fuselage of a new cargo aircraft can houselarge-size equip­ment. 4. Solar power can be used as a source of heat.5. When we heatwater, it turns into steam. 6. Heatenergy may be of a kinetic form. 7. A new computerized system monitorsthe production pro­cesses of this plant. 8. This plant is equipped with video and televi­sion monitors.9. Our laboratory is developing an electronic monitoringsystem for cars. 10. In new cars instrument panels will have a means to displaydifferent objects on the road. 11. Liquid-crystal displaywas used in the first colour television set. 12. A spe­cial electronic device signalsthe engine to stop. 13. Now it is pos­sible to send signalsover long distances.

Упражнение 10.Определите, в каких предложениях only — наречие, а в каких — прилагательное.

1. The higher school today considers education not only as a collection of useful facts and theories but as a process which trains

the mind to think, analyze and make decisions. 2. Halley’s Comet is the only comet which has been regularly observed for more than 200 years. 3. Many experts now question the idea that environmen­tal problems began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century. 4. Since their first appearance in 1939 only few people owned television sets. 5. The collection of ethnography in the British Museum is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. 6. When we speak about the further develop­ment of computers, we mean not only quantity, but also high tech­nology and high speed.

Упражнение 11. А.Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний.

one thing is certain, public transport, the time is coming, from home to office, a modern vehicle, in common use, to get into a car, a pack of cigarettes, how far one can drive, various objects ahead, directly above the bumper, get out of a car.

различные объекты впереди, общественный транспорт, современное транспортное средство, приходит время, сесть в машину, пачка сигарет, от дома до работы, одно явно, в по­всеместном использовании, выйти из машины, сколько (как далеко) можно проехать, непосредственно над бампером.

В. Переведите словосочетания.

to go out into the street, a usual means of transport, to get in­formation, to get the best economy, a decade ago, to play a part, the size of a pack of cigarettes, the vehicle’s carburetor, an elec­tronic instrument panel, the car’s position on a road, objects ahead of the vehicle, stationary objects ahead, ten miles an hour.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 12.Переведите производные слова согласно образцу:

прилагательное существительное > + -age = существительное

Глагол

j

short — короткий -> shortage — нехватка, недостаток mile — миля mileage расстояние в милях to use использовать usage использование advantage, breakage, blockage;

суффикс глагола -ate illuminate — освещать; sophisticate — усложнять regulate, demonstrate, concentrate, separate, indicate;

префикс en- Л- прилагательное = глагол rich — богатый -> to enrich обогащать to enable, to ensure, to enlarge, to enclose.

Упражнение 13.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

public [‘рлЬкк], transport, future [‘fjir.tfe], pilot [‘pallet], role [‘reul], carburetor Lkaibju’rete], control [ken’treul], display, component [кэт’рэипэт], model [‘modi], characteristics ^kaerakte’ristiks], diagonally [dai’aegeneli], automatic [pitem’aetik], automatically, automobile [‘o:t9m9ubi:l], motor [‘meute], decade [‘dekeid], gasoline [‘gaeseulhn], nature [‘neitje.], to project [pre’dbekt], Sahara [se’hcr.re], ceramic [si’raemik], radar [‘reide].

Упражнение 14.Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов.

vehicle [‘vi:ikl], drive [draw], driver, arrive [e’raiv], arrival [e’raivel], guidance [‘gaidens], private [‘praivit], motorway, mo­torcar, lane [lein], luxury [‘1лк/эп], exhaust [ig’zo.st], device [di’vais], adjust [a’c^ASt], fuel [fjuel], calculate [‘kaelkjuleit], av­erage [‘aevends], since [sins], feature [‘fi:tje], aerial [‘serial], di­rectly [di’rektli], danger [‘deindje], observe [eb’zeiv], warn [wo:n], buzzer [Ългэ], Japan [фэ’рэеп], Japanese [^aepe’ni.z], angle [‘aei\gl], axis [‘aeksis], data [‘deite], impassable [im’pcr.sebl], valve [vaelv], 5 °C [faivdi’gri.z’sentigreid], engine [‘endbin].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ

adjustv — регулировать angleп — угол applyv — применять avoidv — избегать axisп — ось

currentа — современный, те­кущий

destinationп — пункт назначе­ния detectv — обнаруживать

guidanceп — управление, на­ведение

ignitionп — зажигание indicatev — указывать, пока­зывать

makev — делать, заставлять mountv — монтировать, уста­навливать

onlyа — единственный; adv — только

directlyadv — прямо, непо- placev — помещать

средственно selectv — выбирать

enginen — двигатель sizen — размер

ensurev — обеспечивать, га- sophisticatedp.p — сложный

рантировать valven — клапан

equipv — оборудовать warnv — предупреждать

exceedv — превышать withstandv — выдерживать

exhaustn — выхлоп

in many respects— во многих отношениях

to look like— быть похожим

to turn on/off— включать/выключать

Text 7 A

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